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Raspberry
On the board!
There are many versions of Raspberry Pi, this articles will refer to Raspberry Pi 4, the last version of the mini-computer.
For the first few steps, only some parts of the Raspberry Pi will be used. A focus on the HDMI connector: it need to connect your computer to a monitor or a tv (in a next project we will learn how to use a laptop monitor). Raspberry Pi 4/3 uses a normal HDMI connector, Raspberry Pi Zero/Zero WiFi uses a micro HDMI connector.
There are four USB ports, like on your laptop. Use them to connect a mouse.
Raspberry Pi 4/3 have a WiFi module, but on the board there is also an Ethernet connector, in case you chose to connect you Raspberry Pi with it, there is no need to select the WiFi and use the WiFi password.
There are two in-line connectors, one for a display, one for a RaspiCam, we will see it later.
40 pins on the upper side, they are the GPIOs. The GPIO is a device that permit to connect the Raspberry Pi with the electronic world. LEDs, relays, buzzers, motors can be controlled trough the GPIOs. Not all the Raspberry Pi pins are GPIO, there are also DC power input output pins, ground pins and i2c pins. Look the image 1 for the Raspberry Pi 4/3 pinout.

What is it?
Raspberry Pi is a single-board computer. A real computer, with all its functions, smaller than a credit card. Raspberry Pi is equipped with OS, RAM, processor, USB ports, bluetooth and wifi (not everyone).
Raspberry Pi is produced by the Raspberry Foundation since 2012, the initial idea, that is still percecuted is to teach informatic using a low-cost hardware and software.


Pi 3
Pi 4
Pi Zero
Pi 400
CPU
Broadcom BCM2837 Quad Core 1.2GHz  64bit CPU
Broadcom BCM2711 Quad core Cortex-A72 (ARMv8) 1.5GHz  64bit
1GHz Single Core
Broadcom BCM2711 Quad Core Cortex-A72 (ARM v8) 1.8GHz 64bit
RAM
1GB
2GB/4GB/8GB
512MB
4GB
Power
Micro USB
USB type C
Micro USB
USB type C
Video exit
HDMI
HDMI
Mini HDMI
2 micro HDMI
USB port
4 (2.0)
2 (2.0), 2 (3.0)
1 micro USB
2 (3.0) 1 (2.0)
Display port
Yes
Yes
No
No
Camera port
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Ethrnet port
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
WiFi mod.
Yes
Yes
Only on W model
Yes
Bluetooth
4.2
5.0 BLE
4.2
5.0 BLE
Consumption
800 mA (4W)
500mA (2.4W)
160mA (0.80W)
500mA (2.4)
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